Early years organisations and experts have expressed concern at a recent report on effective teaching in primary schools recommending that the Department for Education support a review of the reception year. The open letter to the Teaching Schools Council queried the basis for the recommendation in Dame Reena Keeble’s report, which was made despite having very limited early years expertise within its primary-focused advisory group, and drawing on a sample of only 20 schools.
Instead, signatories to the letter are calling on the Teaching Schools Council to commission an expert report on early years pedagogy which draws on relevant research and showcases how reception classes are delivering excellent teaching based on the principles laid out in the statutory framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage, with outstanding results for their children going on to KS1 and 2.
The report has caused a furore among reception teachers on social media and online.
Beatrice Merrick, Chief Executive of Early Education which co-ordinated the sector response, said:
“This report has caused huge concern for seeming to imply that there are problems with the reception year because it is not sufficiently like year 1 of primary. That appears to show a deep misunderstanding of the reasons why the Early Years Foundation Stage curriculum is different to the National Curriculum, namely that it is based on well-evidenced pedagogical principles and research relating to child development as these relate to children under 5.
The report said it had found confusion among teachers and heads; in our experience confusion among reception teachers tends to come from a conflict between their wish to deliver the EYFS in accordance with their professional training, and pressures from above for more formal approaches to be introduced. This isn’t an issue only for England - in Scotland a recent report recommended that all headteachers should receive training on early years. We would welcome a follow-up report from the Teaching Schools Council on early years pedagogy which might help primary colleagues better understand how they can work with foundation stage colleagues to achieve the best outcomes for children.”
Elaine Bennett, EYFS/Year One Leader at Friars Primary School and Nursery, Southend on Sea and founder of the Keep Early Years Unique Facebook group said:
“There is so much research and theory to show the power of the best early years practice, so why on do we end it in this country at the end of reception? In higher achieving nations such as Finland, this stage extends to age 7, and in Scotland there is an Upstart campaign for a 3-7 Kindergarten stage. Why on earth would it be best practice to push Key stage one down into our Reception classes? Surely instead we should review what is in fact a developmentally inappropriate KS1 curriculum and look instead to put tried, tested, researched and proven EYs principles into Ks1 classrooms and perhaps beyond?”
Helen Moylett, early years consultant and Vice-President of Early Education said:
“Reception teachers often find themselves at the receiving end of the top down approach enshrined in this report: an approach that disregards child development, relevant research and established effective practice and which wants to treat 4-year-olds as if they were in Year 1 or 2. So predictably there is what the report calls ‘confusion’.
Many headteachers recognise how the EYFS principles and characteristics, along with the work of primary experts such as Guy Claxton and James Nottingham and researchers such as Carol Dweck, can help them ensure curriculum continuity through reception and into Key Stage 1 and 2. In these schools the early years appropriately influence the rest of the school. We know from much longitudinal research such as EPPSE, CfBT (2010) High Scope, McLelland et al (2012) that the short-term effects of formal academic early years programmes wear off after a few years in primary school. However cognitive-developmental approaches emphasising children’s choice, autonomy and self-regulation have longer term positive effects on both academic and social adjustment outcomes.”
Contact for further enquiries
For further information please contact Beatrice Merrick, Chief Executive, Early Education (07712 398672) or firstname.lastname@example.org).
Early Education (The British Association for Early Childhood Education) is the leading independent national charity for early years practitioners and parents, campaigning for the right of all children to education of the highest quality. Founded in 1923, it has members in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales and provides a national voice on matters that relate to effective early childhood education and care of young children from birth to eight. The organisation supports the professional development of practitioners through publications, training, conferences, seminars and access to a national and regional branch network. For more information on the work of Early Education visit www.early-education.org.uk
2. A copy of the text of the letter is below. Signatories are still being added, and the most recent list can be found in the news section of the Early Education website.
Early Education is registered as a charity in England and Wales (Registered Number 313082) and Scotland (Registered Number SC039472).
Open letter to Andrew Warren, Chair of the Teaching Schools Council
7 November 2016
Dear Andrew Warren
Dame Reena Keeble's report for the TSC on “Effective Primary Teaching Practice” has caused a furore for venturing opinions about how the reception year should be taught, despite having very limited early years expertise within its primary-focused advisory group. Unfortunately this has led to recommendations which appear to show a lack of understanding of the distinctive and evidence-based pedagogy that underpins the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS).
We might agree with the report that “reception is the most important year”, and that “done well and properly invested in, it will provide pupils with a strong foundation for the rest of their time in school.” However, abundant evidence shows that effective early years pedagogy is that which develops confident and able learners, and that pushing children into formal learning too early damages their achievement later on. Although the report does emphasise that it is not recommending formal drilling, and does reference Ofsted's extremely helpful definition of teaching in the early years, the tone of the report, in referring to "aimless" activity and centring its attention on expectations for phonics and number, reflects a very limited view of early years pedagogy. While the report suggests that planning in Reception should start “with the learning outcome in mind”, it would do well instead to adhere to its own earlier guidance on learning that emphasises focusing on children’s current understandings and how meaningful activities are to them: “We learn new things in relation to things we already know and new understanding is built on prior knowledge and understanding. Finally, we remember things better when we give things meaning”.
The report bases its recommendation for a review on an assertion that there is "confusion about expectations among teachers and heads” relating to the reception year. Where there is confusion, this often arises from pressure to create practice that does not align with the statutory requirements of the EYFS. Confusion may also arise when there is a lack of understanding and consensus on what constitutes effective reception practice.
The EYFS differs from the National Curriculum for sound, well-evidenced reasons relating to child development. Good transitions do not come from diluting good early years practice with elements of primary practice: on the contrary, with a school starting age of 5 - one of the lowest in the world - KS1 needs to take on board key elements of early years practice, such as supporting the characteristics of effective learning. Indeed, any children who do not reach a good level of development in the reception year as measured by the EYFS Profile should be entitled to continue to experience the pedagogical approach required in the EYFS in Year 1.
It is regrettable that the report is based on visits to only 20 schools, and that it drew conclusions from this small and unrepresentative sample. This is not credible evidence of a need to review the reception year, or the requirements of the EYFS, and certainly not of the advisability of any such review being led by primary teachers and leaders alone. Nursery teaching, while part of many primary schools, was not included in the report’s remit. Reception teaching, which belongs firmly within the EYFS, should not have been addressed either without real dialogue between early years and primary colleagues.
We look forward to the Teaching Schools Council commissioning an expert report on early years pedagogy which draws on relevant research and the many excellent examples of reception classes using the principles laid out in the statutory framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage. These achieve outstanding results for their children going on to KS1 and 2. All the signatories to this letter would support that.
Beatrice Merrick, Chief Executive, Early Education (The British Association for Early Childhood Education)
Nancy Stewart, Vice Chair and Wendy Scott OBE, Primary School Governor/President TACTYC (Association for Professional Development in Early Years)
Melian Mansfield, Chair, Early Childhood Forum
Liz Marsden, CEO and Jan Dubiel, National Director, Early Excellence
Neil Short, Chair, National Association of Small Schools
Tony Bertram and Chris Pascal, President and Vice President of Early Education and Directors of the Centre for Research in Early Childhood (CREC)
Marion Dowling, Vice President of Early Education
Helen Moylett, Vice President of Early Education, PGCE and MA tutor at CREC
Peter Elfer, Principal Lecturer, Early Childhood Studies, School of Education, University of Roehampton and Vice President of Early Education
Laura Henry, Early Years consultant and Vice President of Early Education
Lesley Staggs, Vice President of Early Education and the first National Director for Early Years
Emeritus Professor Philip Gammage, Vice President , Early Education
Joy Reynolds, Headteacher/Head of Centre, Lanterns Nursery School & Extended Services and Patti Snook, Head of Centre, Bushy Leaze Children & Families Centre, Foundations Teaching School Alliance
Helen Ruff, Headteacher/Head of Centre, ACE Children’s Centre and Nursery School/ACE Teaching School Alliance
Maureen McGillicuddy, Lead of Birmingham Nursery Schools Teaching School Alliance (BNSTSA)
Donna MacDonald, Deputy Head, Tanglewood Nursery School/ Tanglewood Teaching School Alliance
Karen James, Head Oak Tree Children's Centre/Ludwick Nursery School/Acorns Teaching School Alliance
Leslie Patterson, Headteacher, Etherley Lane Nursery School/ Durham Primary Teaching School Alliance
Isabel Davis, Executive Head Teacher / NLE, Bedford Nursery Schools Federation and Peter Pan Teaching School Alliance
Helen McHale and Sarah Cottle, Co–Headteachers, Cookham, Maidenhead and The Lawns Nursery School Federation/Foundations for Learning Teaching School Alliance
Jane Pepper, Headteacher Childhaven Community Nursery School/Scarborough Teaching Alliance
Caron Rudge, Headteacher - Training and Partnerships, BEYA - Barnet Early Years Alliance
Sally Franklin, Acting Head Teacher, North Islington Nursery School
Panna Naggar, Headteacher, Northfleet Nursery School/Early Foundations Teaching Schools Alliance
Wendy Colebourne, Headteacher at Harrington Nursery School and Director of Derby Early Years Teaching School
Claire Quinlan, Head teacher, Highters Heath Nursery School
Steve Elliott, Headteacher, Overchurch Infant School, Wirral
Steven Badcott, Executive Headteacher, Halberton & Uplowman Federation, Devon
Judith Twani, Regional Development Manager, Early Excellence
Ruth Swailes, Independent School Improvement Adviser
Julia Norman, Senior Teacher, Wells Primary and Nursery School, Norwich
Chris Currie, Primary Head, Dixons Allerton Academy, Bradford. EYFS Specialist Leader of Education
Binks Neate-Evans, Headteacher, West Earlham Infant and Nursery School
Kate Beaumont, Seven Kings Primary School, Essex
Su Yay-Walker, Headteacher, Burlington Infant and Nursery School
Elaine Bennett, EYFS and Yr1 leader, Friars Primary School and Nursery, Early Years consultant and author, Keeping Early Years Unique founder, Southend, Essex
Professor Julie Fisher, Early Years Adviser & Visiting Professor of Early Childhood Education
Di Chilvers, Advisory Consultant in early education and Early Education Associate
Ruth Moore, Freedom To Learn Network Ltd
Kathryn Solly, Specialist Early Years Speaker, Consultant, Trainer and Author
Kym Scott, Independent Early Years Consultant
Pete Moorhouse, Early Years Consultant and Honorary Research Fellow, Graduate School of Education. University of Bristol
Jan White, Consultant for Learning Outdoors in Early Childhood
Anna Ephgrave, Early Years Author and consultant
Rhian Fisk, EYFS leader, Writtle Infant School
Sue Allingham, Early Years Consultant
Leah Morris, Early Years Lead and Reception Teacher, Southend, Essex
Ant Hautler, Headteacher, Leigh North Street Primary School
John Wadsworth, Goldsmiths University of London
Dr Andrew Lockett, Early Years Consultant
Dr Jane Murray, TACTYC Executive
Helen Gillespie, Early Years Consultant
Jo Fenton, Head teacher, Collyhurst Nursery School and Children's Centre
Alexandra Law, Headteacher, Harry Roberts Nursery School
Janet L Cook, Headteacher, Sunny Brow Nursery School
Nicola Burke, Early Years Consultant and Early Education Associate
Anni McTavish, Early Years and Creative Arts Consultant
Lucy Waterman, Love Early Years
Theresa Lane, Headteacher, Rachel McMillan Nursery School and Children's Centre
Sarah Helm, Head Teacher, Old Church Nursery School
Oliver Wood, Reception Teacher
Jane Moore, Early Years Quality and Curriculum Adviser, Rotherham School Improvement Service/Early Years and Childcare Service